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APA Referencing

Citing sources in APA format

Pattern 2: With Adjective Clause (that)

Subject (YYYY) + reporting verb + that + subject + verb . . . .


Cowles et al. (2001) asserted that writing to learn activities enhance the development of critical thinking skills in nuring students.*

Fraser and Gallop (1993) suggested that patients with BPD are seen as healthier than others, so when they display challenging behaviours, nurses become less empathetic and withdraw.**

List of Pattern 2 verbs 

The reporting verbs in this list can all be followed by a noun-clause beginning with "that."

acknowledge, add, advise, agree, announce, argue, assert, assume, believe, caution, claim, clarify, comment, concede, conclude, confirm, contend, demonstrate, determine, doubt, estimate, explain, find, hypothesize, imply indicate, infer, insist, justify, maintain, note, observe, point out, posit, propose, realize, recognize, recommend, remark, report, restate, reveal, show, speculate, state, stress, suggest, theorize, understand, urge, write

Sources for example sentences

*Gazza, E. A., & Hunker, D. F. (2012). Facilitating scholarly writer development: The writing scaffold. Nursing Forum, 47(4), 278-285.

**Weight, E. J. & Kendal, S. (2013). Staff attitudes towards inpatients with borderline personality disorders, Mental Health Practice, 17(3), 34-38. Retrieved from