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APA Referencing

Citing sources in APA format


In your nursing papers, it is always best to paraphrase and summarize the ideas and information found in your sources. However, at times, you may wish to use the author's exact words and copy them. Copying the words from your source is called a "quotation."  Quotations may seem easier but there are some challenges and requirements to using them.

Example: Source Material as it appears in the Original Text (Block Quotation Format)

The following text has been copied directly from the source with no changes made to original formatting. This text uses "block" format because it is longer than 40 words. The block format uses indentation of one (1) tab and starts on a new line and does not use quotation marks. The citation is placed on a separate line and is not followed by punctuation.

Therefore, school nurses need to be prepared for their increasing role in
providing mental health care for school-aged children by:
■ Using current policies and guidelines to access mental
health training
■ Having knowledge of the support that may be offered by
local organisations for mental health needs
(Bartlett, 2015, p. 133)

Example: Source Material as In-Text Quotation with Citation

The minimum requirement for all quotations is an in-text author/date citation and the page number as well as using quotation marks around the quoted text.

Bartlett (2015) recommends that school nurses can prepare for the integration of mental health care in schools by "having knowledge of the support that may be offered by local organisations for mental health needs (p. 133).


  1. The quoted material must fit with the grammar of your own text. For this reason, paraphrases are often used to help place the quoted material into a new context. (For more on Paraphrasing, click here.)
  2. When quoting directly from the source, you must copy original spelling and even mistakes (e.g., organisations is British spelling)
  3. The final end punctuation (period) is placed after the closing parenthesis of the citation.


Source Text: Bartlett, H. (2015). Can school nurses identify mental health needs early and provide effective advice and support? British Journal of School Nursing,10(3),126-134.


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