Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

APA Referencing

Citing sources in APA format

Pattern 1: Independent Clause

Subject (YYYY) + reporting verb + object . . . .


Harris (2006) and Luthy et al. (2009) proposed the use of continuous feedback at specific points in the assignment development process.*

Banks-Wallace (1998) has identified six functions of storytelling.**

List of Pattern 1 verbs

The reporting verbs in this list can all be followed by a direct object.

add, advise, advocate, analyze, appraise, assess, assume, characterize, clarify, confirm, consider, contradict, critique, demonstrate, describe, determine, discount, discover, discuss, disregard, doubt, emphasize, evaluate, examine, explain, explore, express, highlight, identify, ignore, illustrate, interpret, investigate, justify, list, observe, oppose, outline, present, propose, question, refute, reiterate, reject, represent, reveal, scrutinize, show, stress, study, support, underscore, urge, use, validate, view, verify

Sources for example sentences

*Gazza, E. A., & Hunker, D. F. (2012). Facilitating scholarly writer development: The writing scaffold. Nursing Forum, 47(4), 278-285.

** Restrepo, E., & Davis, L. (2003). Storytelling: Both art and therapeutic practice. International Journal for Human Caring, 7(1), 43-48.