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Writing Style

Adjective Clause (adj cl)

Dependent clauses beginning with the relative pronouns, that, which, or who, are used to describe (or modify) a noun, a phrase, or the entire clause that comes before them. Like all clauses, the adjective clause must have a subject and a verb. The relative pronoun functions as the subject of the clause.
  modifies a noun or pronoun that is the subject or object of the main clause 
Example: Patients with limited English proficiency were less satisfied with the care that was provided for them.
Place the adjective clause near the modifies.
Do not use a comma before an adjective clause that uses "that."
 used when the adjective clause adds additional information about the main clause
 modifies the entire clause that comes before it (not just one word or idea)
Example: A limitation of this study was its restriction to one region of the country, which is not enough to generalize it to a larger population. 
Note that the adjective clause does more than describe a word or idea in the first clause. It is an additional comment.
Use a comma before an adjective clause that begins with "which."
The pronoun “who” is used when the adjective clause describes a person or people in the main clause. It can modify either the subject or the object of the main clause.
Example A: Job satisfaction is higher in nurses who are led by a transformational leader. 
Example B: Nurses who are led by a transformational leader experience higher job satisfaction.
Place the adjective clause near the word that it modifies.
The pronoun “who” should be followed by a verb.


Watch this 9-minute introduction to using relative pronouns.

English With Ashish. (2019, September 2). Relative pronoun -- Which vs that -- Defining and non-defining clause -- Relative clause [Video]. YouTube.


Watch this 19-minute extended lesson on using relative pronouns.

LetThemTalkTV. (2021, April 17). Relative pronouns -- That, which, who(m), whose, where, when or nothing? -- Explained with donuts [Video]. YouTube.

More Information
"The Adjective Clause," Grammar Bytes