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Study Selection/ Screening

Screening results for a literature review

PRISMA Statement

PRISMA stands for "Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses."

PRISMA "is an evidence-based minimum set of items for reporting in systematic reviews and meta-analyses. PRISMA primarily focuses on the reporting of reviews evaluating the effects of interventions, but can also be used as a basis for reporting systematic reviews with objectives other than evaluating interventions (e.g. evaluating aetiology, prevalence, diagnosis or prognosis)" (PRISMA, 2021, para. 1).

Why use PRISMA?

PRISMA helps authors to improve their reporting of literature reviews. In essence, PRISMA reporting facilitates researchers in transparently reporting

  • why they are reviewing literature, 
  • what they did, and
  • what they found.

PRISMA and Covidence

Covidence can keep track and record your screening activities, including duplication as well as exclusion and inclusion in various stages of study selection. You can copy the numbers obtained from Covidence to prepare your PRISMA flow chart.


Page, M. J., McKenzie, J. E., Bossuyt, P. M., Boutron, I., Hoffmann, T. C., Mulrow, C. D., Shamseer, L., Tetzlaff, J. M., Akl, E. A., Brennan, S. E., Chou, R., Glanville, J., Grimshaw, J. M., Hrobjartsson, A., Lalu, M. M., Li, T., Loder, E. W., Mayo-Wilson, E., McDonald, S., Mc Guiness, L. A., Stewart, L. A.,...Moher, D. (2021). PRISMA 2020 explanation and elaboration: Updated guidance and exemplars for reporting systematic reviews. BMJ372(71), 1-9.

PRISMA. (2021). Welcome to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) website!